Pedro Molina

民族国家的重生

发自剑桥——我们这个时代的其中一个根本性谬论就是全球化正迫使民族国家走向消亡。我们被告知说交通与通讯技术革命已经消弭了边界,让世界变得更小。从跨国监管者网络,国际公民社会组织到多边机构,新的治理模型正在超越并取代那些只为单一国家服务的立法者。而据说各国国内的政策制定者们在面对全球市场之时也相当软弱无力。

但全球金融风暴却粉碎了这一谬论。是谁救助了银行,注入流动性,启动财政刺激计划,为失业者们提供了社会安全网,并以此遏制了灾难的进一步升级?是谁重新制定了金融市场的监管规则以避免重蹈覆辙?是谁在事态恶化之时承担了大部分罪责?答案总是那么一个:国家政府。跟它们比起来,G20,世界货币基金组织以及巴塞尔银行业监管委员会都只是些跑龙套的。

即便是在区域性机构势力相对强大的欧洲,主宰政策制定的还是国家利益和各国国内的政策制定者(很大程度上就是德国总理默克尔本人)。倘若默克尔不是那么着迷于对欧洲高负债国家采取紧缩政策,又如果她能说服自己的选民们接受另一种措施的话,欧元区的危机将都会以一种截然不同的形式发展。

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