Paul Lachine

日益兴起的有关保护主义的迷思

剑桥——
在金融危机盛行期一直没有这方面的警示——保护主义。尽管有各种各样的论调和警告出现,但各国政府实际上都没有对进口施加什么限制措施。当前的世界还和危机发生之前一样的开放。

保护主义一般出现在经济出问题之时。随着经济下滑和失业率不断升高,受到国内利益团体的压力,政府一般会更加关注国内事务,而不是坚持在国际上的相关承诺。

正如凯恩斯所言,贸易限制措施在经济萧条期可以保护,甚至提供工作机会。但是,这种在特殊情况下做出的限制对单个国家可能有好处,对于世界经济来说是有害的。当所有人都开始实行贸易壁垒时,贸易就会崩溃,这样就没有人能获利。最好的例子就是1930年代大萧条期间,由于无所约束的贸易政策加深了经济形势的恶化。

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