Миф об «Еврабии»

ЛОНДОН – Сегодня много внимания уделяется рассказам о том, как многие молодые европейские мусульмане поддаются воздействию терроризма, как ислам ведет к радикализации и как мусульмане вследствие своей веры выбирают жизнь в гетто и тем самым создают рассадники терроризма. В экстремальном виде эта идея отражается в понятии «Еврабия», разжигающем рознь термине, который используют для описания якобы существующего феномена загрязнения мусульманскими ордами ДНК Европы, происходящего в наши дни.

Эти рассказы больше всего усиливают страх перед доморощенным терроризмом, а также побуждают относиться к мусульманам как к иностранным недругам. Этому созвучна идея, что примирение религиозных разногласий таит в себе опасность. Также создается ложная дихотомия, что мусульмане должны выбирать между западной и европейской идентичностью и предположительно отдельной от них исламской идентичностью.

Однако отношения между верой европейских мусульман и идентификацией с европейскими нациями редко соответствуют стереотипу понятия «Еврабии». Широкомасштабное глобальное исследование института Гэллапа, которое завершилось изданием книги Джона Л. Эспозито и Далии Могахед «Кто говорит за ислам: что действительно думает миллиард мусульман» (Who Speaks for Islam: What a Billion Muslims Really Think), содержит детальный и сложный анализ отношений европейских мусульман. На основании результатов опроса сделан вывод, что религиозная и национальная идентификация – это дополняющие друг друга, а не конкурирующие концепции.

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