“欧拉比亚”的神话

伦敦-当前,关于有多少年青欧洲穆斯林易于受到恐怖主义的影响,伊斯兰教怎样导致激进思想,以及穆斯林怎样因为其信条而选择居住在独立的区域并因此而创造了一个繁殖恐怖分子的沼泽等问题,有一种很盛行的说法。这种说法最极端的形式是“欧拉比亚”的观点,该观点是一个据称描述了穆斯林群体现在正在污染欧洲真正的DNA这一现象的煽动性术语。

在这种说法中,对产生于国内的恐怖主义的担忧以及将穆斯林作为外国敌人对待的冲动,以及包容宗教差异是很危险的观点,最能产生共鸣。因此,产生了一个假二歧式,其中,穆斯林必须在西方及欧洲身份或者号称独立的伊斯兰身份之间作出选择。

但是,欧洲穆斯林的信仰和他们对欧洲国家的认同之间的关系很少符合“欧拉比亚”的定式。在约翰·L·艾斯泊思托(John L. Esposito)和达利亚·莫加海德(Dalia Mogahed)的作品《谁为伊斯兰教说话:十亿穆斯林真正在想什么》一书中,进行了广泛的全球民意调查研究,这些研究包含了对欧洲穆斯林态度详细而复杂的分析。分析的结果显示,宗教和国家身份是赞美性概念,而不是竞争性概念。

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