La moralidad de la no proliferación

Casi todas las naciones del mundo se reunirán en Nueva York para revisar el Tratado sobre No Proliferación de armas nucleares. El TNP fue negociado en la década de los 60 después de que cinco países (los Estados Unidos, la Unión Soviética, Gran Bretaña, Francia y China) desarrollaran armas nucleares. India, Pakistán e Israel rechazaron unirse al mismo y, con el tiempo, construyeron sus propias bombas atómicas. Ahora Corea del Norte e Irán están siendo acusados de violar los compromisos asumidos en el tratado al tratar de desarrollar armas nucleares.

Además de los temas legales, ¿hay un problema moral relacionado con la no proliferación? En un mundo de estados soberanos, ¿es hipócrita que algunos tengan armas nucleares y a otros se les niegue la posibilidad de desarrollarlas?

Si hoy en día nadie tuviese la bomba, sería mejor que no hubiese sido inventada. No obstante, la historia depende de los caminos que se tomaron en el pasado. Supongamos que fuera 1939 y que los estados estuvieran debatiendo si EE.UU. debería inventar la bomba o no. Podrían haber argumentado que todos deberían tenerla, o ninguno. Sin embargo, si supieran que la Alemania de Hitler la obtendría, podrían haber aprobado la decisión de Franklin Roosevelt de desarrollarla antes que los Nazis.

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