Нераспространение ядерного оружия и мораль

Представители почти всех наций мира собираются в Нью-Йорке для того, чтобы пересмотреть Договор о нераспространении ядерного оружия (Non-Proliferation Treaty, NPT). Этот договор был заключен в 60-х годах прошлого столетия, после того, как пять стран (Соединенные Штаты, Советский Союз, Великобритания, Франция и Китай) разработали ядерное оружие. Индия, Пакистан и Израиль отказались присоединиться к этому договору и со временем сконструировали собственные атомные бомбы. Теперь Северная Корея и Иран обвиняются в нарушении своих обязательств по договору из-за того, что разрабатывают ядерное оружие.

Есть ли в нераспространении ядерного оружия, кроме юридической, также и моральная сторона? Не лицемерие ли это – в мире, состоящем из суверенных государств, разрешать иметь это оружие одним и запрещать другим?

Если бы сегодня бомбы не было ни у кого, то было бы лучше, если бы ее не изобрели совсем. Но история зависит от того, какой путь выбран в прошлом. Предположим, что сейчас 1939 год, и государства обсуждают, следует ли США изобретать бомбу. Возможно, они бы высказались в пользу того, что это оружие должно быть либо у всех, либо ни у кого. Но если бы они знали, что оно появится у гитлеровской Германии, то, возможно, и одобрили бы решение Франклина Рузвельта разработать ее раньше, чем это сделают фашисты.

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