Die Moral der Nichtverbreitung

In New York kommen derzeit nahezu alle Nationen der Welt zu einer Überarbeitung des Atomwaffensperrvertrags zusammen. Der Nichtverbreitungsvertrag (NVV) wurde in den 1960ern ausgehandelt, nachdem fünf Länder (die Vereinigten Staaten, die Sowjetunion, Großbritannien, Frankreich und China) Kernwaffen entwickelt hatten. Indien, Pakistan und Israel lehnten einen Beitritt zum Vertrag ab und entwickelten mit der Zeit ihre eigenen Atombomben. Nun wird Nordkorea und dem Iran vorgeworfen, ihre vertraglichen Verpflichtungen zu verletzen, indem sie versuchen, Atomwaffen herzustellen.

Gibt es neben den rechtlichen Fragen einen moralischen Grund für die Nichtverbreitung? Ist es in einer Welt mit souveränen Staaten heuchlerisch, dass einige über Kernwaffen verfügen und diese anderen verweigern?

Wenn heute niemand die Bombe hätte, wäre es am besten, sie wäre nie erfunden worden. Doch beruht Geschichte auf den Wegen, die in der Vergangenheit eingeschlagen wurden. Angenommen, es wäre das Jahr 1939 und unterschiedliche Staaten würden darüber debattieren, ob die USA die Bombe erfinden sollten. Sie könnten argumentiert haben, dass entweder alle oder keiner sie bekommen sollte. Doch wenn sie wüssten, dass Hitler-Deutschland sie bekommen würde, hätten sie vielleicht Franklin Roosevelts Entscheidung gutgeheißen, sie vor den Nazis zu entwickeln.

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