Non-prolifération nucléaire et morale

Presque tous les pays du monde se rencontrent actuellement à New-York pour discuter du traité de non-prolifération nucléaire (TNP). Ce traité a été négocié dans les années 1960 après que cinq pays (les USA, l’URSS, la Grande-Bretagne, la France et la Chine) ont fabriqué leur bombe atomique. L’Inde, le Pakistan et Israël ont refusé de signer le traité et ont par la suite accédé à l’arme nucléaire. Maintenant, la Corée du Nord et l’Iran sont accusés de violer le traité en développant un armement nucléaire.

Hormis l’aspect juridique, y a-t-il un problème moral lié à la non-prolifération ? Dans un monde constitué d’Etats souverains, n’y a-t-il pas quelque hypocrisie à tolérer l’arme nucléaire chez certains et pas chez d’autres ? Si personne n’avait la bombe aujourd'hui, le mieux serait que personne ne l’invente. Mais le présent est conditionné par le passé. Imaginons que nous soyons en 1939 et que l’on débatte pour savoir s’il faut laisser les USA fabriquer la bombe. On dirait sans doute que tout le monde doit l’avoir, ou personne. Mais sachant que l’Allemagne de Hitler allait l’avoir, on aurait sans doute approuvé la décision de Franklin Roosevelt de la fabriquer.

Il est impossible de remonter le cours du temps. Même si tous les Etats conviennent de désarmer, certains risquent de tricher. Ce sont sans doute les régimes autoritaires sans grande transparence qui y réussiront le mieux. C’est la Corée du Nord qui dit avoir développé l’arme nucléaire bien qu’elle ait signé le TNP. La Libye qui était aussi signataire du TNP a pourtant poursuivi un programme nucléaire en secret.

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