La vulnerabilidad moral de los mercados

LONDRES – Hoy parece no existir ninguna alternativa coherente para el capitalismo. Sin embargo, los sentimientos anti-mercado están bien en forma, lo cual queda de manifiesto, por ejemplo, en la reacción moralista contra la globalización. Como ningún sistema social puede sobrevivir mucho tiempo sin un sustento moral, las cuestiones planteadas por los defensores de la antiglobalización son urgentes –mucho más en medio de la actual crisis económica.

Es difícil negar cierto valor moral del mercado. Después de todo, le adjudicamos valor moral a los procesos así como a los resultados, como en la frase “el fin no justifica los medios”. Es mejor, desde un punto de vista moral, que nuestros productos sean suministrados por mano de obra libre que por esclavos y que podamos elegir nuestros productos en lugar de que el Estado los elija por nosotros. El hecho de que el sistema de mercado sea más eficiente a la hora de crear riqueza y satisfacer las necesidades que cualquier otro sistema es un beneficio adicional.

Las críticas morales del mercado se centran en su tendencia a favorecer un tipo de personalidad moralmente deficiente, privilegiar motivos desagradables y promover resultados indeseables. Al capitalismo también se le adjudica la falta de un principio de justicia.

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