欧洲的年轻人失业不是问题

布鲁塞尔—欧洲决策者决定他们必须让世人看到在为年轻人失业问题“做些什么”。今年2月,欧洲各国首脑举行了一次名为“年轻人就业计划”(“Youth Employment Initiative”)的特别峰会,这次峰会由欧洲部长理事会发起,旨在“增强和加快”2012年12月“年轻人就业方案”(“Youth Employment Package”)中所建议的措施。

如此积极的主要原因是南欧年轻人失业的最新警示信号,极高的无业率被广泛认为是政治上不可接受的。但有理由质疑年轻人失业是需要特别关注的离散性问题。事实上,年轻人失业数字具有误导性,体现在两个方面。

首先,该数字覆盖年龄是15—24岁。但这一年龄段可以细分为两个性质迥异的子阶段。“十几岁”(15—19岁)应该大部分还在学校中;如非如此,则可能技能极低,因而即便在好光景时也难以找到全职工作。幸运的是,这一群体数量很小(并且随着时间的推移越来越小)。

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