La clase media del Reino Medio

HONG KONG -- ¿Por qué ha tenido China un éxito tan espectacular en el curso de apenas tres décadas desde el inicio de las reformas económicas de Deng Xiaoping? Las razones que se citan por lo general son los favorables factores demográficos, geográficos y culturales en términos generales. Lo que se entiende menos es que el éxito chino también ha dependido de sus emprendedores y sus patrones de actividad profundamente arraigados.

Existen dos aspectos en el espíritu de emprendimiento chino. Tradicionalmente, los hombres de negocios exitosos de China han enfatizado la confianza y fiabilidad para cumplir los compromisos (xinyong), el gradual desarrollo de sentimientos (ganxing) con proveedores y clientes, y la capacidad de aprovechar las redes de relaciones (guanxi) que a menudo se basan en orígenes comunes o lazos de parentesco. También han subrayado la necesidad de ser valientes, frugales y con alta motivación por el éxito, así como la capacidad de adaptarse a las cambiantes condiciones del mercado.

Algunas de estas características son más específicas en lo cultural que lo que podría implicar la descripción de Joseph Schumpeter del espíritu de emprendimiento como "destrucción creativa". Tanto la valentía como la adaptabilidad van en línea con el énfasis de Schumpeter en la formación de nuevas combinaciones y hacer cosas de nuevas maneras. Por ejemplo, las empresas tradicionales, desde la venta al por mayor de textiles a las operaciones bancarias y la minería de sal, desarrollaron esquemas de repartición de utilidades entre propietarios, socios y empleados a medida que fueron ampliando o generando cadenas de sucursales por todo el país.

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