La primavera de la democracia en el Oriente Medio

Los resultados de las elecciones en el Medio Oriente señalan una nueva tendencia: los partidos políticos islamistas –los que basan sus programas en la ley islámica– son muy populares. Allí donde se celebran elecciones, los islamistas obtienen buenos resultados: Hamás entre los palestinos de la Ribera Occidental y Gaza; la coalición de orientación religiosa chií en el Iraq; una facción parlamentaria en Marruecos y –lo más importante- el gobernante Partido de la Justicia y del Desarrollo (AKP) en Turquía.

Los movimientos democráticos en el Líbano, Egipto y otros países de la región deben afrontar el imperativo de incorporar a los partidos islamistas a los sistemas democráticos, pero, ¿se puede confiar en los islamistas? Si consiguen el poder, ¿respetarán los derechos de las minorías y de las mujeres y cederán el poder, cuando pierdan las elecciones? ¿Tolerarán el disenso? ¿O estarán esas elecciones basadas en el principio de “un hombre, un voto, una vez”?

Como sociólogo, llevo 30 años estudiando esas cuestiones. Cuando estuve interno en una cárcel egipcia, las examiné con los demás presos, muchos de los cuales estaban en la cárcel por apoyar el movimiento islámico de Egipto. ¿Mi conclusión? Los partidos islámicos están cambiando.

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