Le Printemps démocratique du Moyen-Orient

Partout au Moyen-Orient, les résultats des élections marquent une nouvelle tendance : Les partis politiques islamistes, ceux qui déterminent leur plate-forme politique selon la loi islamique, sont très populaires. Partout où des élections sont organisées, les islamistes obtiennent de bons résultats : le Hamas chez les Palestiniens de la Bande de Gaza et de Cisjordanie, la coalition chiite d’orientation religieuse en Irak, la faction parlementaire au Maroc et, de manière plus significative, le Parti pour la justice et le développement (AKP) en Turquie.

Les mouvements démocratiques du Liban, d’Égypte et d’ailleurs, dans cette région, doivent faire face au défi de la participation des partis islamistes aux systèmes démocratiques. Peut-on alors faire confiance aux islamistes ? S’ils arrivent au pouvoir, respecteront-ils le droit des minorités et des femmes et quitteront-ils le pouvoir quand ils ne seront pas réélus ? Accepteront-ils l’opposition ? Ou bien ces élections seront-elles fondées sur le principe du « un homme, une voix, une seule fois » ?

J’étudie ces questions dans ma pratique de sociologue depuis 30 ans. J’ai été emprisonné en Égypte, où j’ai discuté de ces questions avec mes camarades prisonniers qui étaient pour la plupart emprisonnés pour avoir soutenu le mouvement islamiste égyptien. Mes conclusions ? Les partis islamistes ont évolué.

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