媒体冷战

普林斯顿—一场全球信息战已经爆发。战线的一边是捍卫新闻自由的政府,它们将新闻自由视为基本人权之一;另一边是捍卫信息控制的政府,它们将官方信息控制视为基本主权特征。战斗是制度性的,国际电信联盟(ITU)和叙利亚等国的日报等组织剑拔弩张。

社会学家霍华德(Philip N. Howard)最近用“新冷战”一词形容“广播媒体机构和社交媒体新贵之间的战斗,后者拥有与前者极其不同的新产品、所有权和审查方式”。广播必须有强大的资金支持,因此更加集中化,因因此更容易被国家控制。反之,对于社交媒体,任何人只要拥有一部手机就能成为潜在的政府善行和恶行监督员,除非关闭整个互联网,否则很难将社交媒体根除。在考察了俄罗斯、叙利亚和沙特的广播与社交媒体之争后,霍华德下了这样一个结论:尽管媒体文化各不相同,但三国政府均大力支持国家控制的广播。

这些媒体内竞争既有趣,也重要。霍华德指出,信息流通的方式确实反映出社会/政体应该如何组织的问题。

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