Paul Lachine

Le Miracle économique mauricien

NEW YORK – Imaginez qu’on vous décrive un petit pays qui fournit gratuitement une éducation, y compris universitaire, le transport scolaire et les soins médicaux – dont la chirurgie cardiaque – à tous ses citoyens. Vous pourriez penser que le pays en question est soit fabuleusement riche, soit sur le point de vivre une crise budgétaire majeure.

Après tout, les riches pays européens éprouvent de plus en plus de difficultés à payer pour les études universitaires et demandent aujourd’hui aux étudiants et à leurs familles d’en assumer les coûts. Les Etats-Unis n’ont quant à eux jamais essayé de mettre en place une éducation secondaire pour tous et il a fallu d’âpres négociations pour que les Américains pauvres aient accès à des soins médicaux – un acquis que les Républicains cherchent par tous les moyens à remettre en cause, en affirmant que le pays ne peut se le permettre.

Mais Maurice, une petite île-nation à l’Est de la côte africaine, n’est ni particulièrement riche, ni sur le point de faire banqueroute. Elle a néanmoins consacré les dernières décennies à bâtir une économie diversifiée, un système politique démocratique et une protection sociale généralisée. Plusieurs pays, notamment les Etats-Unis, pourraient s’inspirer de son exemple.

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