Paul Lachine

حتمية التصنيع

كمبريدج ـ لعلنا نعيش اليوم في عصر ما بعد الصناعة، حيث أصبحت تكنولوجيا المعلومات والتكنولوجيا الحيوية والخدمات ذات القيمة العالية بمثابة المحركات للنمو الاقتصادي. ولكن الدول تتجاهل صحة صناعاتها التحويلية على نحو يعرضها للخطر.

إن خدمات التكنولوجيا الفائقة تتطلب مهارات متخصصة وتوفر فرص عمل قليلة، لذا فمن المحتم أن يظل إسهامها في إجمالي تشغيل العمالة محدودا. أما الصناعات التحويلية فهي قادرة على استيعاب أعداد كبيرة من العاملين من ذوي المهارات المعتدلة، وتزويدهم بوظائف ثابتة وفوائد جيدة. لذا فإن الصناعات التحويلية تظل بالنسبة لأغلب البلدان تشكل مصدراً قوياً لتشغيل العمالة بأجور مرتفعة.

والواقع أن قطاع الصناعات التحويلية يساعد أيضاً في تشكيل ونمو الطبقات المتوسطة في مختلف أنحاء العالم. ومن دون قاعدة نشطة نابضة بالحياة من الصناعات التحويلية، فإن المجتمعات تميل إلى الانقسام بين غني وفقير ـ هؤلاء الذين يتمتعون بالقدرة على الوصول إلى وظائف ثابتة جيدة الأجر، وأولئك الذين لا يجدون إلا وظائف أقل أماناً ويعيشون حياة أكثر خطورة. وفي النهاية قد تشكل الصناعات التحويلية أهمية مركزية في دعم حيوية الديمقراطية في أي دولة.

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