Skip to main content

2912550446f86f380ecfc627_pa847c.jpg

制造业之谬论

纽约——

很久以前,经济学家们就纠正了亚当·斯密的谬论:认为制造业应该在一国经济中处于头等地位。事实上,亚当·斯密在他的第二本《国富论》中指责那些“牧师、律师、医生及诸如演员、小丑、音乐家以及歌剧歌者舞者等文人”的劳动都是没有生产性的。也许我们同意斯密说的关于律师的无用性,但是肯定不同意他对奥利维埃、福斯塔夫以及帕瓦罗蒂的指责。但是对制造业的痴迷一次次地重现,最近的一次发生在危机后的美国。

在20世纪60年代中叶的伦敦,世界级的剑桥经济学家兼工党重要顾问尼古拉斯·卡尔多警告人们“去工业化”的危害。他宣称,当时正在进行的由制造业附加值产业向服务业的转变是有害的,因为制造业能带来科技进步,而服务业不能。他甚至说服当时工党的财政大臣詹姆斯·卡拉汉于1966年颁布“特定就业税”,规定服务业的职员要比制造业的缴纳更多的税额。在1973年,这项税收被废除了,因为人们认识到这对旅游业造成了冲击,而旅游业带来亟需的外汇。

We hope you're enjoying Project Syndicate.

To continue reading, subscribe now.

Subscribe

Get unlimited access to PS premium content, including in-depth commentaries, book reviews, exclusive interviews, On Point, the Big Picture, the PS Archive, and our annual year-ahead magazine.

https://prosyn.org/89KmG1X/zh;
  1. haass105_Gustavo BassoNurPhoto via Getty Images_amazon Gustavo Basso/NurPhoto via Getty Images

    The Amazon and You

    Richard N. Haass

    Sovereignty entails obligations as well as rights, and where compliance cannot be induced, pressure must be applied. And though positive incentives to encourage and enable compliance would be preferable, Brazil's government is showing that there must be sticks where carrots are not enough.

    1
  2. GettyImages-1151170958 ADRIAN DENNIS/AFP/Getty Images

    The Meritocracy Muddle

    Although populism in Western democracies is nothing new, resentment toward elites and experts has certainly been on the rise. Does this trend reflect a breakdown in the system, or a system that is actually working too well?

    11

Cookies and Privacy

We use cookies to improve your experience on our website. To find out more, read our updated Cookie policy, Privacy policy and Terms & Conditions