Le miracle malais

Le 31 août a été marqué par le 50e anniversaire de la Merdeka en Malaisie : l’indépendance obtenue après plus de 400 ans de domination coloniale. Le combat pacifique et non-violent mené par les Malais n’a certes pas été aussi médiatisé que celui du Mahatma Gandhi en Inde, mais ce qu’a accompli la Malaisie reste impressionnant – et pourrait bien servir d’exemple au reste du monde, tant d’un point de vue économique que pour montrer comment construire une société à la fois dynamique, multiraciale, multiethnique et multiculturelle.

Les chiffres parlent d’eux-mêmes. Lors de son accès à l’indépendance, la Malaisie était l’un des pays les plus pauvres du monde. Bien qu’il soit difficile d’obtenir des données fiables, son PIB (en termes de pouvoir d’achat) était comparable à celui d’Haïti, du Honduras et de l’Égypte, et 5% environ en dessous de celui du Ghana. Aujourd’hui, il fait 7,8 fois celui du Ghana, plus de cinq fois celui du Honduras et plus de 2,5 fois celui de l’Égypte. Au palmarès mondial de la croissance, la Malaisie occupe l’une des premières places, avec la Chine, Taiwan, la Corée du Sud et la Thaïlande.

En outre, les bénéfices de la croissance ont été partagés. La grande pauvreté devrait être éliminée d’ici 2010, avec un taux de pauvreté général chutant à 2,8%. La Malaisie a réussi à réduire visiblement les écarts de revenus entre les divers groupes ethniques, en opérant non pas un nivellement par le bas, mais un nivellement par le haut.

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