Paul Lachine

Zrod obchodního schodku Číny

PEKING – Čína v březnu 2010 zaznamenala měsíční deficit obchodu ve výši 7,2 miliardy dolarů, poprvé od dubna 2004. A přesto zhruba v tutéž dobu Kongres Spojených států zveřejnil svou dosud nejhlasitější výzvu, aby byla Čína označena za manipulátora směnných kurzů, a obvinil čínské předáky, že zavěšení žen-min-pi k dolaru zachovávají proto, aby si pojistili permanentní bilaterální obchodní přebytek.

Březnový obchodní deficit Číny v prvé řadě ukazuje, že není správné tvrdit, že čínský hospodářský růst závisí hlavně na exportu. Vývoz je významnou součástí čínské ekonomiky a každá fluktuace globálního trhu a každý vnější šok se nesporně na celkovém růstu odrazí. Čínské hospodářství, tak jako každou velkou ekonomiku, však pohání domácí spotřeba a investice.

Ostatně čínský export v roce 2009 meziročně klesl o 16 %, v důsledku globální finanční krize a recese. Roční HDP se však zvýšil o 8,7 %, díky růstu spotřeby o 16,9 % (měřeno podle hrubých tržeb z prodeje spotřebního zboží) a skoku poptávky po fixních investicích o 33,3 %.

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