Эффект Люцифера

Почему хорошие простые люди иногда становятся источниками зла? Самое крайнее превращение такого рода – это, конечно же, история любимого ангела Бога, Люцифера – история, которая послужила контекстом для моих психологических исследований менее серьезных человеческих превращений в ответ на губительное влияние мощных ситуативных сил.

Такие силы существуют во многих общих поведенческих контекстах, искажая наше обычное добродушие, заставляя нас впадать в ненормативное, разрушительное или злое поведение. Когда мы попадаем в новую и незнакомую окружающую обстановку, наши обычные образы мыслей, чувств и действий больше не выполняют функцию поддержания морального компаса, который надежно направлял нас в прошлом.

На протяжении последних трех десятилетий мое исследование и исследования моих коллег продемонстрировали относительную легкость, с которой простые люди могут начать вести себя таким способом, который считается злым. Мы провели с участниками исследования эксперименты, в которых мощные ситуативные силы – анонимность, групповое давление или рассеивание личной ответственности – вслепую привели их к тому, что после жестокого отношения к ним они стали подчиняться власти и нападать на других невинных людей

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