Luciferův efekt

Proč se dobří, obyčejní lidé stávají občas pachateli zla? Nejkrajnější proměnou tohoto druhu je samozřejmě případ Hospodinova nejoblíbenějšího anděla Lucifera – a právě tento příběh se stal kontextem mých psychologických zkoumání menších lidských proměn pod tlakem zničujícího vlivu mocných situačních sil.

Takové síly existují vamp#160;mnoha běžných behaviorálních souvislostech a pokřivují naši obvyklou dobrou podstatu tím, že nás postrkují kamp#160;projevům deviantního, ničivého či zlého chování. Když se ocitáme vamp#160;nových, neznámých prostředích, naše navyklé způsoby myšlení, cítění a jednání už dále nepřispívají kamp#160;zachování mravního kompasu, jímž jsme se spolehlivě řídili vamp#160;minulosti.

Výzkum, který jsem samp#160;kolegy prováděl, během uplynulých tří desítek let prokázal relativní snadnost, samp#160;níž lze běžné lidi přivést kamp#160;tomu, aby se chovali způsoby považovanými za zlo. Účastníky výzkumu jsme podrobili experimentům, při nichž je významné situační síly – anonymita, skupinové tlaky či rozptýlení osobní zodpovědnosti – vedly ke slepému uposlechnutí autority a kamp#160;agresi vůči nevinným osobám poté, co je odlidštili.

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