路西法效应

为什么善良的普通人有时会变成作恶者?这种转变的最极端例子当然就是上帝做宠爱的天使路西法的故事。这个故事正是我对在强大的情境力量所造成的侵蚀性的影响下使人们向坏的方面发生的一些转变所进行的心理研究的背景所在。

这种力量存在于一些寻常的行为背景中,它们把我们推向不正常的、破坏性的或者邪恶的行为从而扭曲了我们平常的善良本性。当我们身处于一个新的和陌生的环境时,我们思维、感觉和行为的方式不再受到过去一直可靠地指导我们的道德指针的指引。

过去三十年里,我和我的同事所进行的研究表明了普通的人群会被相对自然地引导向被大家认为是邪恶的行为方式。我们让参加研究的人接受实验,在实验中强大的情境力量,也就是匿名、群体压力或个人责任的传播会使他们盲目地听从当权者的指令,在丧失人性后会恶毒地攻击无辜的人。

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