La lección de Alemania

BRUSELAS – Hace diez años, a Alemania se la consideraba el enfermo de Europa. Su economía no podía salir de la recesión, mientras que el resto de Europa se recuperaba; su tasa de desempleo era superior a la media de la eurozona; mantenía déficits excesivos contrarios a las normas presupuestarias europeas; y su sistema financiero estaba en crisis. Una década después, se ve a Alemania como un modelo que todos los demás deberían imitar. Pero, ¿es así?

Para analizar las lecciones que deja el vuelco de la situación alemana y hasta dónde son aplicables a otros países de la eurozona, hay que distinguir entre lo que es tarea de los gobiernos y lo que aún es responsabilidad de empresas, trabajadores y de la sociedad en su conjunto.

El único ámbito que es claramente responsabilidad estatal es el de las finanzas públicas. En 2003, Alemania tenía un déficit fiscal cercano al 4% del PIB, cifra que tal vez no sea alta según criterios actuales, pero que en aquel momento era superior a la media de la UE. En la actualidad, el presupuesto de Alemania está equilibrado, mientras que el resto de la eurozona mantiene, en su mayor parte, déficits más altos que el que tenía Alemania hace diez años.

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