欧洲的无果之痛

威托利亚-加斯泰兹——不久前的一次采访中,法国总统弗朗索瓦·奥朗德表达了重要、但却往往被人遗忘的观点,那就是要求南欧财政困难国居民做出牺牲也必须要有限度。为了防止希腊、葡萄牙和西班牙沦为集体“劳教所”,奥朗德认为必须要为面临削减开支及财政紧缩所带来衰退的人们保留一丝希望的曙光。

奥朗德的评估以最基本的心理学理解为基础。除非隧道的尽头投射出一线曙光(今天的牺牲能够换来今后的回报),否则纯粹的消极强化和延迟满足不太可能真正实现目标。

看不到未来的回报在很大程度上导致了南欧民众的悲观情绪。随着危机由于消费者信心和家庭购买力的下降而不断向纵深发展,对危机结束时点的预测也一再延后,而那些首当其冲的紧缩受害者更是越来越看不到希望。

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