Paul Lachine

Natur AG?

BERLIN – Heute glauben nur noch wenige daran, dass Konventionen der Vereinten Nationen wie die Klimarahmen- oder die Biodiversitätskonvention die Erderwärmung, den Verlust von Biodiversität und die Ausschöpfung von Ackerböden abwehren kann. Genauso scheint die Festlegung strengerer Emissions-Obergrenzen oder Umwelt- und Sozialstandards zur Reduzierung des Raubbaus an Naturressourcen und zum Schutz von Arbeitnehmern nicht mehr zeitgemäß zu sein. Krisengeschüttelte Volkswirtschaften fürchten, derartige Vorschriften könnten sich nachteilig auf Investition und Handel auswirken.

Während alte Methoden ihre Glaubwürdigkeit verlieren, haben einige Regierungen, Ökonomen und internationale Institutionen wie das Umweltprogramm der Vereinten Nationen einen neuen Ansatz entwickelt, bei dem die Natur als „Ökosystem-Dienstleister“ angesehen wird. Damit wird die Verantwortung für die Risikobewertung dem privaten Sektor und Marktmechanismen übertragen.

Bei diesem neuen Paradigma ist die Erhaltung der Natur eine Handelssache und die natürliche Umgebung ist nichts als eine Reihe handelbarer Güter und Dienstleistungen. Nach dieser Logik stehen Dienstleistungen des Ökosystems nicht mehr gratis zur Verfügung. Laut Pavan Sukhdev, dem führenden Autor der Studie The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity, die die wirtschaftlichen Folgen der Umweltzerstörung hervorhebt, „nutzen wir die Natur, weil sie wertvoll ist, aber wir verlieren sie, weil sie kostenlos ist.“

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