Paul Lachine

自然公司?

柏林—如今,很少还有人会对气候变化框架公约和生物多样性公约等联合国公约抱有幻想,认为它们能扭转全球变暖、生物多样性丧失和适耕土地和水源流失的趋势。类似地,为二氧化碳施加硬上限以及实施更严格的环境和社会标准以降低自然资源消费、保护工人的尝试也不再时兴,受危机影响的经济体担心这些规则会阻碍投资和贸易。

老办法信誉渐失,一些政府、经济学家和联合国环境计划署等国际机构采取了新办法,其出发点是认为自然是“生态系统服务”提供者。这样一来,他们就把解决环境风险的责任推给了私人部门和基于市场的机制。

在这个新范式中,生态保护是一个商业问题,自然环境无非是一组可交易的商品和服务。这一逻辑的终点是,生态系统服务不再是免费提供的。事实上,帕文·苏赫德夫(Pavan Sukhdev)指出,“我们使用自然是因为自然有价值,但我们失去它是因为它是免费的。”苏赫德夫是旨在强调环境破坏的经济影响的《生态系统和生物多样性经济学》研究主撰稿人。

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