Paul Lachine

自然公司?

柏林—如今,很少还有人会对气候变化框架公约和生物多样性公约等联合国公约抱有幻想,认为它们能扭转全球变暖、生物多样性丧失和适耕土地和水源流失的趋势。类似地,为二氧化碳施加硬上限以及实施更严格的环境和社会标准以降低自然资源消费、保护工人的尝试也不再时兴,受危机影响的经济体担心这些规则会阻碍投资和贸易。

老办法信誉渐失,一些政府、经济学家和联合国环境计划署等国际机构采取了新办法,其出发点是认为自然是“生态系统服务”提供者。这样一来,他们就把解决环境风险的责任推给了私人部门和基于市场的机制。

在这个新范式中,生态保护是一个商业问题,自然环境无非是一组可交易的商品和服务。这一逻辑的终点是,生态系统服务不再是免费提供的。事实上,帕文·苏赫德夫(Pavan Sukhdev)指出,“我们使用自然是因为自然有价值,但我们失去它是因为它是免费的。”苏赫德夫是旨在强调环境破坏的经济影响的《生态系统和生物多样性经济学》研究主撰稿人。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/fWz5aGJ/zh;
  1. An employee works at a chemical fiber weaving company VCG/Getty Images

    China in the Lead?

    For four decades, China has achieved unprecedented economic growth under a centralized, authoritarian political system, far outpacing growth in the Western liberal democracies. So, is Chinese President Xi Jinping right to double down on authoritarianism, and is the “China model” truly a viable rival to Western-style democratic capitalism?

  2. The assembly line at Ford Bill Pugliano/Getty Images

    Whither the Multilateral Trading System?

    The global economy today is dominated by three major players – China, the EU, and the US – with roughly equal trading volumes and limited incentive to fight for the rules-based global trading system. With cooperation unlikely, the world should prepare itself for the erosion of the World Trade Organization.

  3. Donald Trump Saul Loeb/Getty Images

    The Globalization of Our Discontent

    Globalization, which was supposed to benefit developed and developing countries alike, is now reviled almost everywhere, as the political backlash in Europe and the US has shown. The challenge is to minimize the risk that the backlash will intensify, and that starts by understanding – and avoiding – past mistakes.

  4. A general view of the Corn Market in the City of Manchester Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

    A Better British Story

    Despite all of the doom and gloom over the United Kingdom's impending withdrawal from the European Union, key manufacturing indicators are at their highest levels in four years, and the mood for investment may be improving. While parts of the UK are certainly weakening economically, others may finally be overcoming longstanding challenges.

  5. UK supermarket Waring Abbott/Getty Images

    The UK’s Multilateral Trade Future

    With Brexit looming, the UK has no choice but to redesign its future trading relationships. As a major producer of sophisticated components, its long-term trade strategy should focus on gaining deep and unfettered access to integrated cross-border supply chains – and that means adopting a multilateral approach.

  6. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now