Ограничения правового империализма

«Первое, что мы делаем», писал Шекспир в Генри VI, Часть II, «это поубиваем всех юристов». В наши дни, кажется, что первое, что делают страны, старающиеся разбогатеть, это импортируют дюжины юристов. В Восточной Европе, бывшие коммунистические страны, подавшие заявку на вступление в Европейский Союз, должны привести свои законы в соответствие с законами ЕС. Этот процесс настолько интенсивный, что иногда оказывается «законодательным торнадо».

В попытках бывших коммунистических стран присоединиться к Западу превалировали импорт законов и правовых стандартов. Зарубежные эксперты помогали разрабатывать проекты правовых кодексов и просматривали проекты законов на протяжении эры Ельцина в России, иностранцы помогали создавать посткоммунистическую Конституцию Украины, Устава Центрального банка Эстонии, Польского режима безопасного переходного периода, постановления о безопасности в Болгарии.

Но импорт хорошо разработанных законов из-за пределов государственных границ начался не с падением коммунизма. Правовая «трансплантация» на самом деле такая же старая, как и само право. Наиболее обширная пересадка закона имела место, когда Европейская империя охватывала весь мир. После Второй мировой войны, Соединенные Штаты Америки начали первое «движение закона и развития» для обеспечения роста и замедления распространения коммунизма. Усилия по реформам законодательства в бывшем социалистическом блоке обозначают второе крупное движение закона и развития. Однако, на этот раз Европа является конкурентом США в распространении законов на восток.

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