Die Grenzen des Rechtsimperialismus

„Was wir zuerst zu tun haben“, schrieb Shakespeare in Heinrich VI, 2. Teil, „ist, alle Richter umzubringen.“ Heute scheinen Länder, die versuchen, reich zu werden, als erste Maßnahme Dutzende Richter zu importieren. In Osteuropa müssen die ehemaligen kommunistischen Länder, die sich für die Mitgliedschaft in der Europäischen Union bewerben, ihr Recht mit dem der EU harmonisieren. Dieser Prozess ist so weitläufig, dass er manchmal als „legislativer Tornado“ erscheint.

Der Import von Rechtssystemen und Gesetzesstandards dominiert die Bemühungen früherer kommunistischer Länder, sich an den Westen anzuschließen. Ausländische Experten halfen, ein Gesetzbuchmuster zu entwerfen und überarbeiteten Gesetzesentwürfe während der Jelzin-Ära in Russland; Außenstehende halfen, die Verfassung der postkommunistischen Ukraine anzufertigen, das Statut der Zentralbank von Estland, Polens verlässliches Ausführungssystem und Bulgariens Sicherheitsbestimmungen.

Aber der Import von gut-ausgearbeiteten Gesetzen von außerhalb der Staatsgrenzen hat nicht mit dem Fall des Kommunismus begonnen. Rechtsübertragungen sind in der Tat so alt wie das Recht selbst. Die ausgebreitetste Übertragung von Rechtssystemen fand statt, als die Europäischen Imperien den Globus umspannten. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg startete die USA die erste „Rechts- und Entwicklungsbewegung“, um Wachstum zu fördern und die Ausbreitung des Kommunismus zu bremsen. Anstrengungen zu Gesetzesreformen im ehemaligen sozialistischen Block bestimmen die zweite große „Rechts- und Entwicklungsbewegung“. Derzeit befindet sich Europa jedoch im Wettstreit mit der USA, Rechtssysteme ostwärts zu verbreiten.

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