Les limites de l’impérialisme juridique

La première chose à faire, a écrit Shakespeare dans Henri VI, Acte 2, est de tuer tous les hommes de loi. De nos jours, la priorité des pays qui tentent de s’enrichir semble être de faire venir des dizaines de juristes. En Europe de l’Est, les pays de l’ex - bloc communiste qui désirent devenir membres de l’Europe doivent accorder leurs lois à celles de l’Union Européenne. Ce processus est d’une telle envergure qu’on a l’impression d’assister parfois à une véritable tornade législative.

Les tentatives des anciens pays communistes pour s’unir avec l’Occident ont été dominées par l’adoption de lois et de normes juridiques. Les spécialistes étrangers ont aidé à esquisser le cadre des codes juridiques et ont révisé les projets de lois tout au long de l’ère Yeltsine en Russie. Ce sont des étrangers qui ont aidé à la rédaction de la Constitution Ukrainienne de l’après - communisme, de la charte de la Banque Centrale Estonienne, à la mise en place du régime de transactions sécurisées de la Pologne et des règles boursières bulgares.

Mais l’adoption de lois toutes faites d’origine étrangère n’a pas débuté à la chute du communisme. Les greffes juridiques, en effet, sont aussi vieilles que la loi. La plus vaste greffe de droit a eu lieu quand les Empires européens se sont étendus sur le globe. Après la seconde guerre mondiale, les USA ont lancé le premier mouvement de droit du développement dans le dessein de promouvoir la croissance et de freiner l’essor communiste. Les efforts de réforme juridique dans l’ex-bloc socialiste sont le signe du second grand mouvement de droit du développement. Mais cette fois, l’Europe rivalise avec les USA en ce qui concerne l’expansion de ses lois vers l’Est.

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