Les limites de la démocratie

L'élection du groupe militant et jusqu'ici extra-parlementaire Hamas dans les territoires palestiniens vient nous rappeler ce que la démocratie ne peut pas réussir à faire. Personne, dans un État démocratique plus établi, ne s'étonne si son camp ne remporte pas la victoire. En démocratie les partis sont en constante rivalité, et à moins de former une “grande coalition,” ils ne peuvent pas tous gagner. Mais que se passe-t-il si les vainqueurs d'une élection n'ont pas l'intention d'obéir aux lois qui font partie intégrante du processus démocratique ?

On se rappelle Hitler, qui, alors que son propre parti n'avait pas remporté tout à fait 50% des voix, a pu baser sa “prise de pouvoir” sur une majorité parlementaire. Plus récemment, les élections dans les pays européens post-communistes ont porté au pouvoir des groupes dont les références démocratiques sont pour le moins douteuses.

Il ne s'agit pas de comparer le Hamas à aucune de ces forces politiques. Pourtant, on peut s'interroger sur un mouvement qui a remporté la victoire alors que plusieurs de ses membres élus sont dans des prisons israéliennes, et que d'autres n'obtiendront sans doute pas la permission d'entrer dans le pays dans lequel ils ont été élus, ce qui a pour conséquence que le nouveau parlement ne peut fonctionner correctement.

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