Los límites de la ofensiva de seducción de China

BRUSELAS – Para muchas personas en Occidente, China parece haber pasado de un país que “mantiene la cabeza fría y un perfil un bajo”, según las palabras de Deng Xiaoping, a uno que  gusta de crear disputas internacionales. Encarcelar durante diez años a un ejecutivo minero australiano, echar a Google, mantener alejada a la Unión Europea para un importante diálogo y permitir que un funcionario de medio rango reprendiera al presidente estadounidense, Barack Obama, en la cumbre de Copenhague sobre el clima, no es, después de todo, la mejor forma de convencer a los socios de que se tienen intenciones constructivas.

Tampoco tranquiliza recordar que hasta ahora China ha estado obstinadamente diluyendo las sanciones a Irán, invirtiendo en importantes sistemas militares ofensivos y ridiculizando con regaños a los líderes occidentales debido a políticas financieras irresponsables y el proteccionismo. No obstante, el objetivo de recitar esta letanía no es para poner en relieve la conducta caprichosa de China sino para demostrar el dilema en el que se encuentra el país: si actúa como una potencia “normal” el mundo olvidará los cientos de millones de personas que todavía tiene que sacar de la pobreza.

Los dirigentes chinos parecen estar conscientes de este dilema y en realidad no están dispuestos a ser arrastrados a una feroz competencia con Occidente o sus vecinos. Durante el reciente Congreso Popular Nacional, el premier chino, Wen Jiabao, recalcó que su país no debería dar golpes que no corresponden a su peso  y que la República Popular todavía necesita estabilidad si quiere convertirse en una sociedad que ofrezca una vida digna a todos sus ciudadanos.

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