La vida del partido

Nada ilustra mejor la dicotomía entre las esperanzas y la realidad en China que la excitación alrededor del inminente decimoséptimo Congreso del Partido Comunista Chino (PCC). El PCC llama a un “congreso” cada cinco años para elegir un nuevo Comité Central, nombrar a los nueve miembros que conforman el Comité Permanente del Politburó (CPP), el consejo supremo de gobierno de China, y elaborar las nuevas iniciativas y políticas. Dado que es casi seguro que el secretario general, presidente y comandante en jefe del PCC Hu Jintao y el premier Wen Jiabao reciban segundos mandatos de cinco años, todas las miradas están depositadas en si Hu logrará promover a uno o más de sus aliados más jóvenes al Comité Permanente.

La lucha interna es intensa, pero ahora parece que serán promovidos el secretario del partido de la provincia de Liaoning, Li Keqiang, y de Shanghai, Xi Jinping. Li, 52, considerado un “clon de Hu”, hace tiempo que viene siendo preparado por Hu para el máximo liderazgo. Ambos hombres son ex primeros secretarios de la Liga de la Juventud Comunista, una de las principales bases de poder de Hu.

Pero el repentino surgimiento de Xi, 54, un ex líder del partido en la provincia de Zhejiang que asumió como máximo cuadro de Shanghai hace siete meses, habla mucho del delicado equilibro faccionario del PCC y de las negociaciones en bambalinas. A pesar de su aparente control de la mayoría de las palancas de poder, Hu carece de la autoridad de un Deng Xiaoping, y por lo tanto debe lograr un equilibrio razonable entre las principales facciones del PCC frente a la división del botín en la cima. Xi goza del respaldo de los incumbentes miembros del CPP vinculados a la facción de Shanghai alguna vez liderada por el ex presidente Jiang Zemin, así como de la mayoría de los miembros mayores del partido.

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