Le Parti communiste chinois à l'aube du 17° Congrès

En Chine, rien n'illustre mieux la dichotomie entre espoirs et réalité que tout le bruit autour du prochain 17° Congrès du Parti communiste chinois (PCC) qui va s'ouvrir prochainement. Le PCC réunit un "Congrès" tous les cinq ans pour choisir un nouveau Comité central, sélectionner les neuf membres qui formeront le Comité permanent du Bureau politique du Comité central, l'organe suprême du régime chinois, et décider de nouvelles initiatives et de nouvelles orientations politiques. Comme il est presque certain que Hu Jintao, tout à la fois secrétaire général du PCC, président et commandant en chef des forces armées, et Wen Jibao, le Premier ministre, seront reconduits pour un deuxième mandat de cinq ans, la grande question est de savoir si Hu parviendra à promouvoir un ou plusieurs de ses jeunes partisans au Comité permanent.

La lutte en coulisse est intense, mais il semble que deux d'entre eux, le secrétaire du Parti de la province du Liaoning, Li Keqiang, et celui de Shanghai, Xi Jinping, vont être désignés. Hu prépare depuis longtemps à la charge suprême Li, 52 ans, souvent considéré comme son clone. Les deux hommes sont d'anciens premiers secrétaires de la Ligue de la jeunesse communiste, l'une des principales bases de soutien de Hu.

Mais l'apparition soudaine de Xi, un ancien responsable du Parti dans la province du Zhejiang, devenu l'un des principaux cadres du Parti à Shanghai il y a sept mois, en dit long sur le délicat équilibre entre les différentes factions et les manoeuvres en coulisse. Bien qu'il paraisse contrôler la plupart des leviers du pouvoir, Hu n'a pas l'autorité de Deng Xiaoping. De ce fait, il doit maintenir un équilibre entre les principales factions du PCC quant à la réparation des pouvoirs au sommet. Xi bénéficie du soutien des membres actuels du Comité permanent associés à la faction de Shanghai que l'ancien président Jiang Zemin avait dirigé, ainsi que de l'appui de la majorité des anciens du Parti.

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