Las lecciones del Mundial de fútbol

El Mundial de Fútbol de este año ha demostrado una vez más que este es el deporte más popular del mundo; también ha demostrado que posiblemente también sea la más globalizada de las profesiones. Es inconcebible que médicos, especialistas en informática, obreros industriales o cajeros de bancos de Brasil, Camerún o Japón pudieran mudarse de país en país con la facilidad con que lo hacen los futbolistas brasileños, camerunenses o japoneses.

De hecho, el club de fútbol Arsenal, de Londres, está compuesto íntegramente por extranjeros, incluido su entrenador francés. Hasta la función de capitán del equipo ya no se reserva más para jugadores locales: Thierry Henry, francés, es el capitán de Arsenal; Andriy Shevchenko, ucraniano, fue a menudo capitán del AC Milan y jugará el año próximo para el campeón de la liga inglesa, Chelsea, y Cristiano Zanetti, argentino, es el capitán del Inter de Milán. De manera similar, decenas de sudamericanos y africanos juegan en las ligas rusa, turca, polaca y en varias del sudeste europeo.

Así es como el fútbol nos ofrece un vistazo de cómo funcionaría la verdadera globalización del trabajo. En el fútbol, como en otras ocupaciones, las restricciones a la movilidad de la mano de obra provienen en su totalidad del lado de la demanda. Salvo en los países comunistas, nunca se impuso límite alguno a los desplazamientos de los jugadores. Sin embargo, el lado de la demanda estaba fuertemente regulado por una norma que imponía que los clubes no podían tener más de dos jugadores extranjeros en el campo por partido.

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