Die Bedeutung des Falls Zypern

BRÜSSEL – Die Ursache des Problems in Zypern ist bekannt. Die beiden großen Banken des Landes hatten enorme Einlagen aus dem Ausland erhalten – überwiegend aus Russland, und vermutlich in erster Linie von Personen, die einer Überprüfung zu Hause oder anderswo entgehen wollten. Die Gelder wurden dann in griechische Staatsanleihen und in Kredite an griechische Unternehmen investiert. Als Griechenland zusammenbrach, gingen diese Anlagen den Bach runter, und die zypriotischen Banken, die diese Strategie verfolgt hatten, wurden insolvent.

Angesichts dieser Sachlage hätte die logische Entscheidung für das Land klar sein sollen: Um zu überleben, musste die Regierung die ausländischen Einleger an den Verlusten beteiligen. Es ist daher schwer verständlich, warum die zypriotische Regierung zunächst so unwillig war, den Einlegern Verluste aufzuerlegen.

Die letztlich vereinbarte Lösung ist jedoch sinnvoll: Die beiden größten Banken des Landes werden faktisch aufgelöst. Ihre faulen Anlagen werden abgetrennt und im Laufe der Zeit liquidiert. Weder die zypriotische Regierung noch die europäischen Steuerzahler werden zusätzliche Gelder in diese Banken stecken. Die Verluste, die nach der Abwicklung der faulen Anlagen verbleiben, sind daher von den unversicherten Gläubigern der Banken zu tragen, d.h. jenen mit Einlagen von mehr als € 100.000.

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