Las lecciones de la Perestroika, 20 años después

Veinte años después de que Mikhail Gorbachov señalara el arranque de la Perestroika, muchos lamentan el ritmo lento de las reformas en Rusia bajo el Presidente Vladimir Putin. Pero, ¿podría haber sucedido otra cosa? Esto no debe ser una sorpresa ya que las agitadas eras de Gorbachov y Yeltsin dejaron exhausto al país. ¿Quién puede culpar a los rusos de estar cansados de las reformas? Pero si Rusia quiere volverse a levantar, se necesitan más reformas. No obstante, antes de que inicie una nueva ronda, es necesario entender ciertos principios básicos de las capacidades políticas de Rusia.

La primera pregunta que cualquier aspirante a reformador ruso debe hacer hoy en día (y que no planteamos durante la perestroika de Gorbachov) es la siguiente: ¿está lista la sociedad para soportar los sufrimientos de corto plazo de las reformas, y qué tan dispuesta está a hacerlo? La experiencia de la perestroika resalta la importancia de esta pregunta.

La perestroika se dio en un momento único de la historia rusa. Las grandes reformas del pasado, incluyendo la liberación de los siervos en 1861, vinieron después de muchos años de discusiones entre occidentales, eslavófilos y otros. Las revoluciones de 1905 y 1917 también sucedieron en momentos en que esas discusiones habían terminado y todo el mundo sabía quién estaba de qué lado.

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