Les leçons du Liberia

La semaine dernière, aux Nations Unies, le secrétaire d'Etat américain Colin Powell et le secrétaire général des Nations Unies Kofi Annan se sont unis pour exhorter à un soutien financier rapide et substantiel pour le Liberia, qui se tient sur le fil du rasoir entre un redressement potentiel et une nouvelle descente dans la violence. La réponse a été gratifiante, l'Union européenne soutenant complètement l'effort de reconstruction de cette nation brisée. Quasiment une centaine de pays ont participé à la réunion et ont promis au Libera plus de 500 millions de dollars pour aider à sa reconstruction.

De nombreux observateurs ont considéré cette manifestation d'unanimité comme un contraste manifeste avec les divisions profondes existant au sein de la communauté mondiale relativement à la guerre en Irak. Mais à bien des égards, c'est l'Irak qui était problématique. Le consensus international sur la nécessité urgente de pacifier et reconstruire le Liberia, sous l'égide des Nations Unies guidées par un Conseil de sécurité uni, est conforme aux réponses mondiales aux accords de paix dans de nombreux autres conflits nationaux et régionaux, du Timor Oriental, du Cambodge, du Mozambique aux voisins du Liberia, la Sierra Leone et la Côte d'Ivoire.

Mais en dépit de l'accord mondial sur la nécessité de saisir ces opportunités, nous nous retrouvons bien trop souvent en train de nous démener, de façon ad hoc, pour réunir des donateurs bien disposés et organiser des équipes d'experts et de logisticiens afin d'apporter une aide demandée de toute urgence. Même dans le meilleur des cas, comme avec le Liberia, où un accord de paix a été signé en août, le processus est dangereusement long. Avant que n'émerge le nouveau Liberia, nous, le monde, devons trouver un moyen d'apporter des ressources bien plus rapidement pour pacifier le pays.

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