L'austerità nelle economie di piccole dimensioni

BRUXELLES – Di solito, l'interesse per le politiche economiche dei Paesi più piccoli è limitato a un ristretto numero di specialisti. Ci sono, tuttavia, momenti in cui l’esperienza di queste realtà viene vista dal resto del mondo come la dimostrazione dell'efficacia di un determinato approccio politico rispetto ad altri.

Oggigiorno, la Grecia, i Paesi baltici e l'Islanda sono spesso citati nei dibattiti a favore o contro l'austerità. Il premio Nobel Paul Krugman sostiene, ad esempio, che un Pil lettone tuttora inferiore di oltre 10 punti percentuali al picco pre-crisi è la dimostrazione che un approccio improntato ad austerità e compressione salariale non funziona; d’altro canto l'Islanda, che non è stata soggetta a un'austerità imposta dall'esterno e ha svalutato la propria moneta, sembra versare in condizioni economiche migliori. Sul fronte opposto, altri fanno notare che l'Estonia, avendo attuato una rigorosa politica di austerità sulla scia della crisi, è riuscita a evitare una crisi finanziaria ed è ora di nuovo in piena crescita, mentre la Grecia, che ha rimandato il risanamento dei conti pubblici per troppo tempo, è precipitata in una crisi profonda, nella quale è rimasta impantanata.

Il punto è che, in dispute del genere, i due opposti schieramenti tendono a sorvolare sulle importanti peculiarità e sulle specifiche condizioni di partenza che talvolta rendono i parallelismi diretti perfettamente inutili.

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