Las lecciones del comercio de carbono de Europa

FLORENCIA – A medida que se aproxima la Cumbre de Cambio Climático de Cancún, las conversaciones sobre la viabilidad de los sistemas de comercio de carbono se intensifican. El mundo puede voltear a ver el modelo europeo que está funcionando y funciona bien.

En 2005, los Estados miembros de la UE fueron los primeros en crear un sistema límites máximos y comercio de derechos de emisión que abarca aproximadamente la mitad de sus emisiones de CO2. Siguen siendo los únicos países que imponen un precio por utilizar carbono a una parte significativa de sus economías. El sistema de comercio de emisiones de la UE (ETS por sus siglas en inglés), que tiene cinco años de antigüedad,  puede ofrecer tres lecciones generales.

Primera, el sistema funciona. El ETS ha logrado su objetivo de reducir emisiones en el volumen establecido al menor costo. Se ha estimado con fiabilidad que las emisiones han reducido entre 3% y 5% en los primeros tres años de aplicación del ETS, debido al precio del carbono. Este un porcentaje modesto, pero el objetivo inicial también lo era.

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