Paul Lachine

La troika europea debería crecer

PARÍS – A principios de 2010 un grupo de hombres (y algunas mujeres) vestidos de traje negro llegaron a Atenas. Eran enviados de una institución global, el Fondo Monetario Internacional, y de un par de instituciones regionales, la Comisión Europea y el Banco Central Europeo. Su misión era negociar las condiciones del rescate financiero de Grecia. Algunos meses después, lo que se empezó a conocer como la “troika” fue enviada a Irlanda, luego Portugal y después a Chipre.

Esta iniciativa estaba destinada a tener fuertes implicaciones. La troika negoció lo que al final terminó siendo los paquetes de asistencia financiera más grandes de la historia: los créditos para Grecia de parte de sus socios europeos y del FMI sumarán al final 240 mil millones de euros (310 mil millones de dólares) o 130% del PIB de 2013 del país –mucho más en términos absolutos y relativos que lo que cualquier otro país haya recibido antes. Los créditos para Irlanda (85 mil millones de euros) y Portugal (78 mil millones de euros) también son significativamente más grandes de lo que normalmente otorga el FMI.

Además, la cooperación entre estas tres instituciones no tiene precedentes. En 1997 y 1998, durante la crisis asiática, el G-7 rechazó categóricamente la propuesta de Japón de hacer un Fondo Monetario Asiático. Ahora el FMI ha aceptado incluso un papel de acreedor minoritario, pues gran parte de la asistencia la otorga el Mecanismo Europeo de Estabilidad (MEDE), una nueva institución que a menudo se le percibe como un fondo monetario europeo embrionario.

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