Paul Lachine

欧洲三驾马车需要成熟

巴黎—2010年初,一批身穿黑西装的男人(和少数女人)来到雅典。他们中有的一个名叫国际货币基金组织(IMF)的全球机构,其他来自欧盟委员会和欧洲央行。他们的任务是与希腊谈判金融援助的条款和条件。几个月后,这批被称为“三驾马车”的机构的人士又先后来到爱尔兰、波兰和塞浦路斯。

如此卖力自然会引起广泛影响。三驾马车谈的是最终成为有史以来最大金融援助的计划:IMF和欧洲伙伴给希腊的贷款高达2400亿欧元,或该国2013年GDP的130%——比此前任何国家所获得的规模都要大,不管以绝对数字还是相对比例而言。给爱尔兰(850欧元)和葡萄牙(780亿欧元)的贷款也远远超过了IMF通常提供的贷款量。

此外,这三大机构之间的合作前所未有。1997—1998年亚洲金融危机期间,G7断然拒绝了日本成立亚洲货币基金的方案。如今,IMF甚至接受了次要贷款人的角色,援助的大头将来自欧洲稳定机制(European Stability Mechanism,ESM),这是个被广泛视为欧洲货币基金雏形的机构。

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