Paul Lachine

Das angeschlagene Monopol des Kremls

CAMBRIDGE – Seit Vladimir Putin vor zehn Jahren an die Macht gelangt ist, basiert die Herrschaft des Kremls auf zwei Säulen: den Sicherheitskräften und den Energieexporten. Das Regime hat interne Rivalen unterdrückt, sich ihr Vermögen einverleibt und so ein doppeltes Monopol entwickelt.

Die Umverteilung eines Teils der Profite aus hohen Energiepreisen ermöglichte es dem Regime, den Lebensstandard zu verbessern und sich bei der gewöhnlichen russischen Bevölkerung beliebt zu machen. Und die Lösung interner Probleme durch unverhältnismäßige Gewaltanwendung beruhigte sogar die sicherheitsfanatischen ehemaligen KGB-Männer des Regimes.

Bis vor kurzem hat diese Kombination aus Zuckerbrot und Peitsche effektiv funktioniert. Das faktische Nichtvorhandensein öffentlicher Proteste in Russland während der Jahre unter Putin scheint erstaunlich. Aber man darf sich keiner Täuschung hingeben: Putins Beliebtheitsgrad beruhte nicht auf seiner Vitalität, seinem Humor oder seinem geheimnisvollem Nimbus, sondern auf Gehältern und Krediten, in deren Genuss Russen vorher nie gekommen waren. Und solange die Ölpreise schneller stiegen als die russischen Gehälter, konnten die Machthaber immer noch ein großes Stück vom Kuchen abbekommen.

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