终结饥饿的关键问题

俄勒冈州尤金——不久前有关美国三分之二的成年人超重或肥胖,而且肥胖人数还在不断增加的新闻——让人们重又想起了从20世纪70年代以来就一直困扰人类的问题:我们为什么还没被饿死?

就在不久前,专家们还在预测,快速上涨的人口将超过粮食供应的增长速度,从而直接导致大规模饥荒的爆发。现在本应有每年数百万人死于饥饿。这种假说依据的是托马斯·马尔萨斯以前提出的悲惨的计算公式:人口呈几何级数增长,而粮食生产速度则远远滞后。这看上去似乎很有道理。我是读着将马尔萨斯理论现代化了的 《人口爆炸》 等灾难预警作品长大的。

但似乎有人拆除了这颗炸弹的引信。不但没有出现大规模饥荒,我们周围似乎还充斥着食物。而且出现这种状况的还不仅是美国。墨西哥的肥胖人数也在上升。高血脂引发的糖尿病在印度也开始流行。中国四分之一的人口体重超标,6,000多万人患有肥胖症,1985年以来超重儿童的比率增加了近30倍。从布法罗到北京,无论走到哪里都能看到胀鼓鼓的将军肚。

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