La question de Kaliningrad

Depuis une douzaine d'années, les pays baltes connaissent une croissance dynamique et un développement économique qui leur ont apporté liberté et prospérité. L'Estonie, la Pologne, la Lettonie et la Lituanie sont ainsi passées d'une situation de pauvreté due au socialisme à la candidature à l'UE. Des villes russes comme St Petersbourg et Moscou se sont ouvertes et commencent à se développer. Les pays baltes ont peu à peu construit une structure économique favorable au développement d'une société moderne.

Toute la zone de la mer baltique s'est développée, à l'exception de Kaliningrad, la ville qui constitue "une boule noire dans un écrin de perles". Minée par la corruption, la pauvreté et le désespoir, elle connaît le taux de sida le plus élevé de toute l'Europe et un nombre étonnant de toxicomanes. Pourquoi ?

L'Histoire fournit une explication partielle. L'Union soviétique a pris Kaliningrad (l'ancienne Königsberg) à l'Allemagne à la fin de la 2° Guerre mondiale. Elle en a chassé les habitants d'origine et a transformé la ville en un port destiné à la flotte soviétique. Mais l'Histoire n'est pas seule responsable de la pauvreté et de l'absence de perspective qui l'affligent aujourd'hui. L'absence de vision et d'initiative, tant de la Russie que de l'UE, ont aussi un rôle dans le manque de stabilité à long terme dont souffre cette belle région de la mer Baltique. Cela doit changer.

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