La masacre judicial de Srebrenica

El juicio de la Corte Internacional de Justicia (CIJ) referido a la participación de Serbia en la masacre de musulmanes bosnios en Srebrenica en 1995 debería verse con una ambivalencia considerable. Por un lado, el hecho de que un tribunal internacional se haya pronunciado sobre la responsabilidad de un Estado en una cuestión de genocidio es un avance innegablemente positivo. Pero por otro lado, la decisión de la Corte es uno de esos pronunciamientos judiciales que intenta complacer a todo el mundo y deja todo como estaba.

Se suponía que la Corte no responsabilizaría penalmente a individuos específicos; ésa es tarea del Tribunal Penal Internacional para la ex Yugoslavia (TPIY). La CIJ, que más bien se ocupa de controversias entre Estados, se vio enfrentada al reclamo de Bosnia de que Serbia era responsable de la masacre de Srebrenica. Si bien la Corte dictaminó que el genocidio había tenido lugar, decidió que Serbia no era responsable según el derecho internacional.

Según la Corte, los generales serbios bosnios que eran culpables de este genocidio, los diversos Mladic y Kristic, no actuaban como agentes de Serbia ni recibían instrucciones específicas de Belgrado. Por ende, no se le podía imputar el genocidio a Serbia, aunque el gobierno serbio le pagara sueldos a Mladic y sus colegas, al mismo tiempo que les proporcionaba asistencia financiera y militar. Serbia tampoco fue culpable de complicidad ya que, si bien ejercía considerable influencia sobre Mladic y su gente, no sabía, en el momento en que tenía lugar el genocidio, que se estaba cometiendo un crimen de esta naturaleza.

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