Le massacre judiciaire de Srebrenica

Le jugement de la Cour internationale de justice (CIJ) concernant l’implication de la Serbie dans le massacre de musulmans bosniaques, à Srebrenica en 1995, provoque des réactions ambivalentes. D’une part, le fait qu’un tribunal international se soit prononcé sur la responsabilité d’un État dans une affaire de génocide est un progrès indéniable. D’autre part, la décision de la cour fait néanmoins partie de ces verdicts qui tentent de satisfaire tout le monde et de laisser les choses en place.

La Cour n’était pas censée décider de la responsabilité criminelle d’individus : c’est le rôle du Tribunal pénal international pour l’ex-Yougoslavie (TPIY). La CIJ, qui s’occupe plutôt des controverses entre les États, était confrontée à la revendication bosniaque que la Serbie est à l’origine du massacre de Srebrenica. Elle a statué que le génocide avait bien eu lieu, mais pas que la Serbie était responsable selon le droit international.

D’après la Cour, les généraux serbes coupables de ce génocide, les divers Mladic et autres Krstic, n’agissaient pas pour la Serbie et ne recevaient pas non plus d’instructions spéciales de Belgrade. Le génocide ne peut donc être imputé à la Serbie, même si son gouvernement versait des salaires à Mladic et à ses collègues et qu’il leur apportait un soutien financier et militaire. La Serbie n’était pas non plus coupable de complicité, car bien qu’elle exerçait une influence considérable sur Mladic et ses partisans, elle ne savait pas qu’un tel crime était commis.

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