Исламистская индивидуальность

В наши дни ислам повсеместно употребляют (и злоупотребляют им) в качестве политической силы. Некоторые мусульмане используют его как призыв к действию; многие на Западе (и в других частях света) воспринимают его как "чужака", которого необходимо сдерживать и изгонять. Будучи турком по национальности, я непосредственно ощущаю обе стороны, противостоящие друг другу в этом споре.

Причина, по которой ислам кажется жителям Запада религией "чужаков", заключается в том, что Запад был свидетелем систематической деинституционализации религии. Конечно, это скорее не религия исчезла из современной жизни Запада, а религиозные учреждения отказались от притязаний на власть над поведением индивидуума. Религия в современном мире - это намного более личное и духовное явление, чем когда-либо раньше.

Тем не менее, процесс деинституционализации религиозного опыта происходит также и в исламе. На место авторитету исламской религиозной школы, "улемы", приходит политизация ислама. Как и на Западе, исламский религиозный опыт становится более личным. Индивидуальная интерпретация религиозных текстов мусульманами, в том числе политическими боевиками, интеллектуалами и женщинами, является одним из результатов этого. Другой результат - вульгаризация религиозного знания, когда положениями Корана злоупотребляют и выдёргивают их из контекста для оправдания политических целей.

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