La paradoja democrática islámica

La furia en todo el mundo árabe por la publicación en Dinamarca (meses atrás) de caricaturas que representan al profeta Mahoma, junto con el triunfo de Hamas en Palestina y la creciente radicalización de la política iraní han hecho del "Islam político" una cuestión fundamental para la diplomacia internacional. Pero una respuesta igual para todos los casos no funcionará. En efecto, necesitamos abandonar la idea de que hay un movimiento islamista holístico o global.

El Islam político de todos colores ha surgido como la principal alternativa a los regímenes nacionalistas árabes cuya legitimidad, basada en la lucha por la liberación nacional, se ha evaporado debido a su incapacidad para resolver los problemas económicos y sociales, establecer el Estado de derecho, y garantizar las libertades fundamentales. En Palestina, por ejemplo, los islamistas triunfaron sobre Fatah debido a que durante años ha habido una mala administración bajo las condiciones severas generadas por la ocupación israelí.

Varios gobiernos europeos y estadounidenses consecutivos han compartido un miedo atávico a la "alternativa islámica" a los gobiernos nacionalistas seculares árabes como Fatah, y por eso han defendido el status quo. Pero la represión de todos los movimientos de oposición arábe por parte de los monarcas y dictadores seculares de la región significó que "la protección de la mezquita" era el único marco en el que se podía participar en la política.

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