Das islamische Demokratieparadox

Die Wut in der gesamten arabischen Welt über die (vor Monaten) veröffentlichten Karikaturen in Dänemark, auf denen der Prophet Mohamed dargestellt ist, zusammen mit dem Sieg der Hamas in Palästina und der zunehmenden Radikalisierung der Politik des Iran hat den „politischen Islam“ zu einer grundlegenden Frage der internationalen Diplomatie gemacht. Doch eine Nullachtfünfzehn-Antwort passt hier nicht. Wir müssen in der Tat die Vorstellung aufgeben, dass es eine ganzheitliche oder globale islamistische Bewegung gibt.

Der politische Islam jeder Couleur ist als Hauptalternative zu den weltlichen arabischen nationalistischen Regimes aufgekommen. Die Legitimität dieser Regimes, die auf dem Kampf für die nationale Befreiung beruhte, verflüchtigte sich aufgrund ihrer Unfähigkeit, wirtschaftliche und soziale Probleme zu lösen, Rechtsstaatlichkeit herzustellen und Grundfreiheiten zu garantieren. In Palästina triumphierten die Islamisten beispielsweise über die Fatah aufgrund der jahrelangen schlechten Führung unter den harten Bedingungen, die durch die israelische Besatzung hervorgebracht wurden.

Wechselnde europäische und amerikanische Regierungen teilen eine atavistische Angst vor der „islamischen Alternative“ zu den weltlichen arabischen Nationalisten wie der Fatah und haben daher den Status quo verteidigt. Doch bedeutete die Unterdrückung aller arabischen Oppositionsbewegungen durch die Monarchen und weltlichen Diktatoren der Region, dass „der Schutz der Moschee“ zum einzigen Rahmen für politisches Engagement wurde.

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