Les mouvements islamistes et le paradoxe démocratique

La vague de colère qui agite le monde arabe après la publication au Danemark, il y a quelques mois, de caricatures représentant le prophète Mahomet, la victoire du Hamas en Palestine et la radicalisation croissante du régime iranien font de "islam politique" un problème fondamental sur la scène internationale. Mais il ne peut y avoir de une réponse unique à toutes les questions qui se posent. Il faut abandonner l'idée qu'il existe un mouvement islamiste monolithique.

L'islam politique a différentes formes qui sont apparues comme la principale alternative aux régimes arabes nationalistes et laïques dont la légitimité, fondée sur la lutte de libération nationale, a disparu du fait de leur incapacité à résoudre les problèmes économiques et sociaux, établir l'Etat de droit et garantir les libertés fondamentales. En Palestine par exemple, les islamistes l'ont emporté sur le Fatah parce qu'ils ont subi pendant des d'années sa mauvaise gouvernance tout en endurant les épreuves dues à occupation israélienne

De longue date, l'Amérique et l'Europe partagent une peur atavique de "l'alternative islamique" aux dirigeants nationalistes et laïques comme ceux du Fatah et défendent de ce fait le statu-quo. Mais les monarques et les dictateurs laïques du monde arabe ont écrasé toute opposition, faisant des mosquées le seul lieu à l'abri duquel l'engagement politique restait possible.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.


Log in

  1. Sean Gallup/Getty Images

    Angela Merkel’s Endgame?

    The collapse of coalition negotiations has left German Chancellor Angela Merkel facing a stark choice between forming a minority government or calling for a new election. But would a minority government necessarily be as bad as Germans have traditionally thought?

  2. Trump Trade speech Bill Pugliano/Getty Images .

    Preparing for the Trump Trade Wars

    In the first 11 months of his presidency, Donald Trump has failed to back up his words – or tweets – with action on a variety of fronts. But the rest of the world's governments, and particularly those in Asia and Europe, would be mistaken to assume that he won't follow through on his promised "America First" trade agenda.

  3. A GrabBike rider uses his mobile phone Bay Ismoyo/Getty Images

    The Platform Economy

    While developed countries in Europe, North America, and Asia are rapidly aging, emerging economies are predominantly youthful. Nigerian, Indonesian, and Vietnamese young people will shape global work trends at an increasingly rapid pace, bringing to bear their experience in dynamic informal markets on a tech-enabled gig economy.

  4. Trump Mario Tama/Getty Images

    Profiles in Discouragement

    One day, the United States will turn the page on Donald Trump. But, as Americans prepare to observe their Thanksgiving holiday, they should reflect that their country's culture and global standing will never recover fully from the wounds that his presidency is inflicting on them.

  5. Mugabe kisses Grace JEKESAI NJIKIZANA/AFP/Getty Images

    How Women Shape Coups

    In Zimbabwe, as in all coups, much behind-the-scenes plotting continues to take place in the aftermath of the military's overthrow of President Robert Mugabe. But who the eventual winners and losers are may depend, among other things, on the gender of the plotters.

  6. Oil barrels Ahmad Al-Rubaye/Getty Images

    The Abnormality of Oil

    At the 2017 Abu Dhabi Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, the consensus among industry executives was that oil prices will still be around $60 per barrel in November 2018. But there is evidence to suggest that the uptick in global growth and developments in Saudi Arabia will push the price as high as $80 in the meantime.

  7. Israeli soldier Menahem Kahana/Getty Images

    The Saudi Prince’s Dangerous War Games

    Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman is working hard to consolidate power and establish his country as the Middle East’s only hegemon. But his efforts – which include an attempt to trigger a war between Israel and Hezbollah in Lebanon – increasingly look like the work of an immature gambler.