Les mouvements islamistes et le paradoxe démocratique

La vague de colère qui agite le monde arabe après la publication au Danemark, il y a quelques mois, de caricatures représentant le prophète Mahomet, la victoire du Hamas en Palestine et la radicalisation croissante du régime iranien font de "islam politique" un problème fondamental sur la scène internationale. Mais il ne peut y avoir de une réponse unique à toutes les questions qui se posent. Il faut abandonner l'idée qu'il existe un mouvement islamiste monolithique.

L'islam politique a différentes formes qui sont apparues comme la principale alternative aux régimes arabes nationalistes et laïques dont la légitimité, fondée sur la lutte de libération nationale, a disparu du fait de leur incapacité à résoudre les problèmes économiques et sociaux, établir l'Etat de droit et garantir les libertés fondamentales. En Palestine par exemple, les islamistes l'ont emporté sur le Fatah parce qu'ils ont subi pendant des d'années sa mauvaise gouvernance tout en endurant les épreuves dues à occupation israélienne

De longue date, l'Amérique et l'Europe partagent une peur atavique de "l'alternative islamique" aux dirigeants nationalistes et laïques comme ceux du Fatah et défendent de ce fait le statu-quo. Mais les monarques et les dictateurs laïques du monde arabe ont écrasé toute opposition, faisant des mosquées le seul lieu à l'abri duquel l'engagement politique restait possible.

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